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Sensing for monitoring of the Laser-GMAW hybrid welding process
Paper 206, Proceedings of the 23 rd International Congress on
Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics 2004
D. Travis 1 , G. Dearden 1 , K.G. Watkins 1 ,
E.W. Reutzel 2 , R.P. Martukanitz 2 , J.F. Tressler 2
1 - Laser Group, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, U.K.
2 - Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA
Abstract: Laser-GMAW hybrid welding is an increasingly accepted technology for a variety of commercial applications, from industries as diverse as shipbuilding to automobile manufacture. As applications become more widespread, there will be a growing need to cost-effectively monitor the process in order to ensure consistent high quality. To address this growing need, a suite of sensors were used to monitor the laser-GMAW hybrid welding process, while intentionally introducing a variety of process perturbations. Process outputs that were monitored include the GMAW voltage and current, as well as the arc-plasma electromagnetic emissions in both the ultraviolet and infrared regions. Intentionally induced process perturbations included fluctuations in GMAW voltage and wire speed, laser angle of incidence, and laser/GMAW separation distance. The sensor data were collected, analyzed, and correlated with macroscopic evaluations of the weld bead geometry and heat-affected-zone. The data reveal a strong correlation between process variation and sensor readings, suggesting a quality control scheme for laser-GMAW hybrid welding that could rely on relatively inexpensive sensors.
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